[MUNUC 35] The Democratization of Chile, 1990 CHILE
- Chritina Gao (She/Her/Hers)
- Isa Rosario-Blake (She/Her/Hers)
In Washington, DC, days after the historical inauguration of Salvador Allende, the first Socialist president in the world to be elected in a liberal democracy, Richard Nixon stood with his group of advisors, pondering the risks of Chile being pushed “peacefully” towards socialism, and issued the command to “bring him down.” The ultimate result of this command was a very bad economic situation that led to a coup d’etat on September 11th, 1973, which resulted in the death of a President, Allende, and the rise of a dictator, Augusto Pinochet. Pinochet incentivized strong market-based economic policies, which gained him support with the pro-capitalist population. On the other hand, people that didn’t agree with his policies were said to have “disappeared” as they were killed by the regime.
Pinochet not only brought back economic stability but also made sure people were oblivious to the murders, making him highly popular up until the Economic Crisis of 1982-1983. Union leaders united together to create a list of demands for the government, and the first street-protests emerged, something that hadn’t been seen during his regime. This lit the candle of rebellion against the regime, and slowly this led to slightly more freedom of press, allowing people to learn what was truly going on. International awareness also heightened, and there was growing European and American pressure to transition toward democracy.
In 1987, pressured by a variety of different things, and following a failed assassination attempt, Pinochet announced a national plebiscite, in which people were asked if Pinochet should remain in power. 55% of voters voted against him, and he was later informed that he now lacked the military backing to defy the people’s wishes and continue to remain in power, and in 1990, seventeen years after he had assumed power, Pinochet stepped down and a democratically elected leader of the opposition was put in place.
Here is where the committee begins. In the two traditional GA committees, you will take on the role of the cabinet of the newly elected President, Patricio Aylwin, to draft and pass a new constitution for this new democratic era. After ratifying the constitution, we will move in time to the future and, through a crisis session, test the strength of our new Magna Carta. In the crisis sessions, you will be asked to pass directives focusing on women’s rights, workers rights, economic issues and internal and external threats that have been occuring in Chile in the past decade. Will you have to rewrite your constitution? Will you replace the president? How will Chile stand in the face of the world’s issues today?